Verb Grouping for Particles

和文はこのページの下の方にあります。/ The Japanese text is at the bottom of this page.
An image to encourage Verb Grouping for Particles
“Asu wa ii hi ni shiyoo! shiyoo! shiyoo! (Let’s! let’s! let’s make tomorrow a great day!)

Have you had trouble deciding which particle to use in your sentence? Many particles are often required by the sentence structure, which is decided by the verb. Many verbs share the same structure, so we made some verb grouping for particles. After reading this, you will be able to decide the particles more correctly and easily!

*******************************

Table of Contents

  1. The Verbs of Existing
  2. The Verbs of Giving
  3. The Verbs of Receiving
  4. The Verbs of Moving in One Direction
  5. The Verbs of Activities Occurring at One Place
  6. The Verbs of Moving About
  7. The Verbs of Leaving a Place

*******************************

1. The Verbs of Existing

We call the following verbs, but not exclusively, the Verbs of Existing. The reason is they express the state of existing, being or staying at one place.

With these verbs, when we mention the location of the existence, the location word is always followed by “ni” (に).

Example: コンビニにでんがあります。Konbini ni denchi ga arimasu. (There are some batteries at the convenient store.)

  • be います  imasu
  • be あります  arimasu
  • stay います  imasu

2. The Verbs of Giving

We call the following verbs, but not exclusively, the Verbs of Giving. The reason is they generally mean a transfer of a thing from the speaker to another (or others).

With these verbs, we often mention the recipient. The word for that person is always followed by “ni” (に).

Example: わたしははでんします。Watashi wa haha ni denwa-shimasu. (I call my mom.)

  • (I) give あげます  agemasu
  • (someone) gives (me) くれます kuremasu
  • lend します kashimasu
  • teach おしえます oshiemasu
  • make a phone call でんします denwa-shimasu、でんをかけます denwa o kakemasu
  • send おくります okurimasu
  • send (an alternative word for おくります okurimasu) します dashimasu

3. The Verbs of Receiving

We call the following verbs, but not exclusively, the Verbs of Receiving. The reason is they generally mean a receipt of a thing (including knowledge) by the speaker from another (or others).

With these verbs, we often mention the person from whom we receive, borrow, rent, or learn. The word for that person is always followed by “ni” (に).

Example: わたし友達ともだちにパソコンをります。Watashi wa tomodachi ni pasokon o karimasu. (I borrow a personal computer from my friend.)

  • receive もらいます moraimasu
  • borrow ります karimasu
  • learn ならいます naraimasu

4. The Verbs of Moving in One Direction

We call the following verbs, but not exclusively, the Verbs of Moving in One Direction. The reason is they generally mean the moving of your position in one direction, or travelling from one place to another.

With these verbs, we often mention the destination. The word for the destination is always followed by “e” (へ) or “ni” (に).

Example: わたしほんきます。Watashi wa nihon e ikimasu. (I’m going to Japan.)

  • go きます ikimasu
  • come ます kimasu
  • return (to your home or where you consider home) かえります kaerimasu
  •  (speaking of your residence, workplace, etc.) move します hikkoshimasu
  • bring [a thing] ってます motte-kimasu
  • take [a thing] ってきます motte-ikimasu
  • bring [a person] れてます tsurete-kimasu
  • take [a person] れてきます tsurete-ikimasu
  • arrive  (for this, に sounds better than へ) きます tsukimasu

5. The Verbs of Activities Occurring at One Place

We call the following verbs, but not exclusively, the Verbs of Activities Occurring at One Place. The reason is they generally mean an activity which takes place at one place.

With these verbs, when we mention the location of occurrence, the word for the location is always followed by “de” (で).

Example: わたしこうます。Watashi wa hikooki de nemasu. (I will sleep in the airplane.)

  • eat べます tabemasu
  • sleep ます nemasu
  • work はたらきます hatarakimasu
  • meet (someone) います aimasu
  • teach おしえます oshiemasu
  • learn ならいます naraimasu
  • dine しょくします shokuji-shimasu
  • wait ちます machimasu
  • hurry いそぎます isogimasu
  • help つだいます tetsudaimasu
  • talk はなします hanashimasu
  • use 使つかいます tsukaimasu
  • show せます misemasu
  • make つくります tsukurimasu
  • cook りょうします ryoori-shimasu、~をつくります tsukurimasu
  • pay [money] はらいます haraimasu
  • lose なくします nakushimasu
  • be born まれます umaremasu

6. The Verbs of Moving About

We call the following verbs, but not exclusively, the Verbs of Moving About. The reason is they generally mean an activity of moving in unlimited space.

With these verbs, we often mention the space we move around in. The word for the space is always followed by “o” (を).

Example: わたし公園こうえんさんします。Watashi wa kooen o sampo-shimasu. (I take a walk in the park.)

  • walk あるきます arukimasu
  • run はしります hashirimasu
  • drive (a car) (くるまで) はしります hashirimasu
  • take a walk さんします sanpo-shimasu
  • travel 旅行りょこうします ryokoo-shimasu
  • [Whales, salmon and other creatures that swim in wide space] swim およぎます oyogimasu
  • give a tour [of a place] 案内あんないします annai-shimasu

7. The Verbs of Leaving a Place

We call the following verbs, but not exclusively, the Verbs of Leaving a Place. The reason is they generally mean an activity of leaving a place.

With these verbs, we often mention the place we leave. The word for the place is always followed by “o” (を).

Example: わたしきってんます。Watashi wa kissaten o demasu. (I will leave the coffeeshop.)

  • leave, go out of [a place] ます demasu
  • graduate from [a school] ます demasu
  • get off/out [a vehicle] ります orimasu

=>Return to Recent Posts/「新着記事」へ戻る

=>Return to Home/「ホーム」へ戻る

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

seventeen − ten =