Expressions of Desire for the Second and Third Person

和訳は英文の下になります。/ The Japanese translation is below the English text.


1. Summary
2. -Tagarimasu
3. -Tagatte imasu
4. Hoshigarimasu
5. Hoshigatte-imasu

1. Summary

In this post, we will discuss expressions of desire for a subject in the second person (the person the speaker is talking to) or in the third person (the one who is neither the speaker nor the addressee).

The same grammar applies to the second and the third person.

In short, there are two verbs to express hope and desire for such subject. When and which one to use are decided by the grammatical type of the object of desire. For one, we use “-tagarimasu” only when it is a verb. The other one, “hoshigarimasu”, we use when we express the desire with a noun.

For either object type, we have a distinction between two aspects of desire. Aspect here means whether the desire is transient, or it is static and current.

Here is the summary of this post.

SubjectAspectVerb is the object of desireNoun is the object of desire
Second person or third
Transient (present but occasional or habitual)Haha wa tama ni watashi no koe o kikitagarimasu. (My mom wants to hear my voice once in a while.) => See Section 2Tomodachi wa nihon no o-miyage ni sanshoo o hoshigarimasu. (My friend want Japanese pepper as a souvenir from Japan.) => See Section 4
Second person or third personStatic (present state)Imooto wa tai-ryoori o naraitagatte-imasu. (My sister wants to learn Thai cooking.) => See Section 3Imooto wa tebukuro o hoshigatte-imasu. (My sister wants a pair of gloves.) => See Section 5

2. -Tagarimasu                                                  

“-Tagarimasu” (want to do …) is an expression of desire for the second and third person. It is used only when the object of desire is expressed with a verb.

Ex. 1. Haha wa tama ni watashi no koe o kikitagarimasu. (My mom wants to hear my voice once in a while.)

“Kikitagarimasu” is a combination of “kiki-” and “-tagarimasu”. “Kiki-” is the “masu” stem of the verb “kikimasu” (to hear, listen). “-Tagarimasu” is an auxiliary verb and it adds the meaning “apparently want to do…” to the verb.

・For more on “masu” stem, please refer to: => How to Express the Speaker’s Hope and Desire

A verb thus connected to “-tagarimasu” indicates the change in the person’s state of mind from “not having the desire” to “having the desire”.

For example, in Ex. 1, my mother wants me to call her on occasion, but she doesn’t have to hear from me every day, knowing that I am generally doing fine. “-Tagarimasu” shows the transient nature of the desire like this.

Therefore, we always mention the circumstances or the frequency at which the desire occurs, as “tama ni” (once in a while) in Ex. 1. Below is another example:

Ex. 2 Toshi-totta inu wa, samui hi wa sampo-shitagarimasen. (An aged dog doesn’t want to go for a walk on a cold day.)

“-Tagarimasu” conjugates as follows:

Present/Futuresampo-shitagarimasu. (want/wants to take a walk [in certain circumstances])sampo-shitagarimasen. (don't/doesn't want to take a walk [even in certain circumstances])
Pastsampo-shitagarimashita. (wanted to take a wak [in certain circumstances])sampo-shiitagarimasen-deshita. (didn't want to take a walk [even in certain circumstances])

3. -Tagatte-imasu

“-Tagatte-imasu” (want to do…) is the “-te imasu” form of the afore-mentioned “-tagarimasu”, and it shows the desire of a continuing nature. Most typically, we say “-tagatte imasu” to talk about the subject’s current desire.

We call this type of desire “static” as opposed to “transient” type. See the example:

Example 2. Imooto wa Tai-ryoori o naraitagatte-imasu. (My little sister wants to learn Thai cooking.)

“Naraitagatte-imasu” is a combination of “narai-” and “-tagatte-imasu”. “Narai-” is the “masu” stem of the verb “naraimasu” (to learn).

“-Tagarimasu” is one of the special verbs which must be in “-te imasu” form to indicate the present state.

In this structure, the verb formed with “-tagatte-imasu” conjugates as follows:

Present/Pastnaraitagatte-imasu. (want/wants to learn)naraitagette-imasen. (don't/doesn't want to learn)
Pastnaraitagatte-imashita. (wanted to learn)naraitagatte-imasen-deshita. (didn't want to learn)

4. Hoshigarimasu

“Hoshigarimasu” is the other expression of desire for the second and third person, and only when the desire is expressed with a noun.

Ex. 3 Tomodachi wa nihon no somiyage ni kona-zanshoo o hoshigarimasu. (My friends want ground sanshoo pepper as a souvenir from Japan.)

To make a sentence with “hoshigarimasu”, first, you present the subject (in this case “tomodachi”) and the subject marker particle “wa”.

Next, mention the object (“kona-zanshoo”) and the object marker “o”. Then you say the verb (hoshigarimasu) to complete the sentence.

“Hoshigarimasu” also shows the change of status from the absence to the presence of the desire. Therefore, we often mention the circumstances or the frequency at which it occurs. Sometimes you recognize it from the context. For example, in Ex. 3, “whenever I go to Japan” is implied. 

“Hoshigarimasu” conjugates as follows:

Present/Futurehoshigarimasu. (want/wants [in certain circumstances].)hoshigarimasen. (don't/doesn't want [in certain circumstances].)
Pasthoshigarimashita. (wanted [in certain circumstances].)hoshigarimasen-deshita. (didn't want [in certain circumstances].)

5. Hoshigatte-imasu

“Hoshigatte-imasu” is the “te-imasu” form of “hoshigarimasu”, and it only shows someone’s desire of a continuing nature. Typically, it is used to talk about someone’s current desire. See the example:

Ex. 4 Imooto wa tebukuro o hoshigatte-imasu. (My little sister wants a pair of gloves.)

“Hoshigarimasu” is one of the special verbs which takes “-te imasu” form to show the subject’s current state.

“Hoshigatte-imasu” conjugates as follows:

Present/Futurehoshigatte-imasu (want/wants)hoshigatte-imasen (don't/doesn't want)
Pasthoshigatte-imashita (wanted)hoshigatte-imasen-deshita (didn't want)

Related posts:

=> How to Express the Speaker’s Hope and Desire

=> How to Use Expressions for Hope and Desire

[End of the English post]



1. まとめ
2. ~たがっています
3. ほしがっています
4. ~たがります
5. ほしがります

1. まとめ

この記事では、二人称(話者の話し相手)と三人称 (話者でもその話し相手でもない人すべて)の欲求表現について考えます。









・マス語幹については、こちらをご覧ください => 自分の希望・欲求の表し方




例2 年取った犬は、寒い日は散歩したがりません。



3. ~たがっています
















5. ほしがっています







=> 希望・欲求表現の使い方

=> 自分の希望・欲求の表し方


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