和訳は英語の下にございます。/The Japanese translation is below the English text.



1. In short: Use “to” after a noun
2. Special case: Use “de” when the nouns are in the predicate
3. Bonus: "De" doesn't have tense

In Japanese, there are two ways to say “and” after a noun: One is “to” and the other “de”.

Here are how to use them in the right place:

1. In short: Use “to” after a noun

To say “and” in Japanese, we usually say “to” after a noun. This “to” it means “and” here) is a particle and works like a hook on which you can put the next noun.

[Click to enlarge / 画像をクリックすると拡大します] “Attendants”, Joseon Dynasty Korea, Nezu Museum, Tokyo. / 李氏朝鮮侍童像、根津美術館 Photo by Amity

Example 1. Tomodachi to watashi wa bijutsukan e ikimashita. (My friends and I went to an art museum.)

Ex. 2. Watashi wa sarada to sushi o chuumon-shimashita. (I ordered a salad and sushi.)

Ex. 3. Doyoobi to nichiyoobi ni, nihongo o benkyoo-shimasu. (On Saturdays and Sundays, I study Japanese.)

As shown above, the connected nouns may take various positions or have various functions in a sentence. In Ex. 1, they are the subject of the sentence while in Ex. 2, they are the object of the verb. They are in an adverbial clause in Ex. 3.

You can also make a longer strand of nouns connected with “to”, but in any case, do not add “to” to the last noun on your list. Instead, follow the last noun with a particle, a verb, or anything that decides what role the nouns as a group should play in your sentence. For example,

Ex. 4. [After a vocabulary quiz or something] 1-ban to, 3-ban to, 5-ban to, 7-ban to, 8-ban o machigaemashita. (I was wrong on No. 1, No. 3, No. 5, No. 7 and No. 8.)

Here, the particle “o” shows that the five numbers are altogether the object of the verb “machigaemashita” (make a mistake on something).

2. Use “de” when the nouns are in the predicate

There is one case in which you need the particle “de” to mean “and” after a noun.

It is when the nouns are in the predicate.

Suppose we would like to say “We are Japanese and teachers.” In this case, we must say “de” after “nihon-jin” as follows:

Ex. 5. Watashi-tachi wa nihon-jin de kyooshi desu. (We are Japanese and teachers.)

Both “nihon-jin” and “kyooshi” are the predicate of the sentence. The predicates, the underlined part in Ex. 5, are the part of a sentence which explains the subject.

For more on the predicate, please refer to Two Uses of Adjectives, but basically, a simple sentence has a subject and a predicate. We can say Ex. 5 contains two predicates because we see it was originally two sentences as follows:

Ex. 6. Watashi-tachi wa nihon-jin desu. Soshite watashi-tachi wa kyooshi desu. (We are Japanese. And we are teachers.)

Compare Ex. 5 and Ex. 6. “De” in Ex. 5 replaces “[…nihon-jin] desu. Soshite…” in Ex. 6.

This “de” is a connecting form of the verb “desu”. In other words, “de” works like a hook equipped to the “-desu” sentence-ending to hang another sentence on.

Therefore, in full sentence, Ex. 6 should be like this:

Ex. 7. Watashi-tachi wa nihon-jin de, watashi-tachi wa kyooshi desu. (We are Japanese and we are teachers.)

From this, trim the redundant parts off, hence Ex. 5. This is why we need “de” for it.

So, if, in the future, you are saying a sentence with two or more words to explain one subject, stop and think if you do not need “de” in the connection.

3. Bonus: “De” doesn’t have tense

Use of “de” thus lets you make a longer sentence with one subject followed by several predicates.

When you do this, you can use “de” with any tense. Only at the last of the sentence do you have to express whether it’s past or present, etc., and the entire predicate will have the tense.

In other words, you can use “de” for “…desu. Soshite,” or “…deshita. Soshite…”. See the example:

Ex. 8. Tezuka Osamu wa nihonjin de, dansei de, isha de, manga-ka deshita. (Tezuka Osamu was a Japanese person, a male, a doctor, and a cartoonist.)

The last “deshita” shows that Mr. Tezuka is no longer active or alive.

So, keeping in mind you need to pay special attention to the last part of the sentence, proceed to read: How Do You Say “And” After Verb?

[End of the English post]

Other posts on “How Do You Say ‘And’ In Japanese?”
=> Summary: How Do You Say “And” In Japanese?
=> How Do You Say “And” After Verb? 
=> How Do You Say “And” After Na-Adjective?
=> How Do You Say “And” After I-Adjective?
=> How Do You Say “And” As A Conjunction?



1. 手短かに:「と」を使う
2. 特別の場合: 述部の中の名詞につなぐ場合は「で」を使う
3. ボーナス情報:「で」には時制がない





例1 友達と私は美術館へ行きました。

例2 私はサラダと寿司を注文しました。

例3 土曜日と日曜日に、日本語を勉強します。



例4 [単語テストのあとで] 1番と、2番と、3番と、5番と、7番と、8番をまちがえました。






例5 私たちは、日本人で教師です



例6 私たちは日本人です。そして、私たちは教師です。




例7 私たちは日本人で、私たちは教師です。



3. ボーナス情報:「で」には時制がない




例8 手塚治虫は日本人で、男性で、医者で、漫画家でした。


ですから、くれぐれも文の最後には気を付けつつ、次は、動詞の後でAND…をどう言うか を読んでみましょう。


=> まとめ記事:日本語でAND…は何という?
=> 動詞の後でAND…をどう言うか 
=> ナ形容詞の後でAND…をどう言うか 
=> イ形容詞の後でAND…をどう言うか 
=> 接続詞としてのANDは何と言う? 

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