和訳は英語の下にございます。/The Japanese translation is below the English text.



1. In short: Use “te form”
2. A little more: How to complete a sentence with verbs connected with “te form”
3. Bonus: the "negative te form"

1. In short: Use “te form” to say “and after a verb

Can you say in Japanese: “I got up at six. I had breakfast.”?

You may want to say:

Ex. 1. Watashi wa roku-ji ni okimashita. Watashi wa gohan o tabemashita.

…But you notice “watashi wa” is repeated, and may wish to combine the two sentences into one. In English, to do this, you can simply say “and” after the first sentence, and connect to the second such as: “I got up at six and had breakfast.”

In Japanese, however, you can’t use the particle “to (and)” to connect verbs and sentences as the English word “and”. You use “to” only after a noun. (For a summary on how to say “and” after different cases, please read: => http://learnjapanesewithyuko.com/grammar/and-in-japanese/)

To say “and” after a verb, you need to change the first verb into “te form”, and this is what we will discuss in this post.*

*This is knowledge for the beginning and low intermediate levels but usable in conversation at any level.

Ex. 2. Roku-ji ni okite gohan o tabemashita.

Changing the verb into “te form” in this case means equipping the verb with something like a “hook” so that you can hang another sentence on it. You can thus combine many simple sentences as follows:

Ex. 3. Roku-ji ni okite, shawaa o abite, sampo-shite, gohan o tabemashita. (I got up at six, took a shower, had a walk and ate breakfast.)

In Ex. 3, therefore, “okite” means “wake up and…”, “abite” means “take [a shower] and…”, “sampo-shite” means “take a walk and…”.

2. A little more: How to complete a sentence with verbs connected with “te form”

Please keep in mind that a verb in “te form” doesn’t have tense (whether it is in the past or present, etc.), polarity (whether it is affirmative or negative) or mood (whether it expresses desire, permission, invitation, etc.). Therefore, we express them with the last verb of the sentence as the representative of all the prior verbs.

For example, in Ex. 3, while we are just hearing or reading “okite”, “abite”, and “sampo-shite”, we don’t know whether it is about the present, future or some other time.

Only after hearing “tabemashita (I ate)”, when the last verb establishes the tense and mood, can we adjust our comprehension of the whole sentence.

Now we know “okite” in this sentence actually meant “woke up and…”, “abite” meant “took [a shower] and…”, and “sampo-shite” meant “took [a walk] and… “

The following is another example:

Ex. 4. Roku-ji ni okite, shawaa o abite, sampo-shite, gohan o tabe-naito ikemasen! (I must get up at six, take a quick shower, talk a walk, and have breakfast!)

The mood and tense of “-naito ikemasen (I have to eat)” is obligation in the present or future. Accordingly, “okite” in this sentence actually means “I must get up and…” “abite” means “I must take [a shower] and…” “sampo-shite” means “I must take [a walk] and…”

3. Bonus: The negative te form

An image of a scene to say "and" after a verb
[Click to enlarge / 画像をクリックすると拡大します] These days we even walk before sunrise. / このごろは夜明け前にも歩きます。Photo by Amity

These days I frequently take a walk before breakfast.

But today I didn’t; I had overslept. I would put it in my diary like this:

Ex. 5. Shichi-ji ni okite, shawaa o abite, sampo-shinaide, gohan o tabemashita. (I woke up at seven, I took a shower, I didn’t take a walk, and I had breakfast.)

Note “sanpo-shinaide”; this is the way we say “and” after a verb in the negative.

How do you make this “negative te form”?

First, make the “nai form” (a.k.a. plain negative form) of a verb. For example, “nai form” of “shimasu (do)” is “shinai” (not do).

Second, add “de” to the “nai form”. In the case of “shinai”, “shinaide” (not do and…) will be its negative te form.

A verb appearing as “…naide” is a negated verb which is equipped with a “hook” to hang another sentence on it.

Whether the verbs are connected with the regular or negative te form, the last verb always decides the mood, polarity and tense of all the prior verbs in a sentence.

[End of the English post]

  • Familiarize yourself with “te form” by listening to the Rainbow Song! => The Rainbow Song

Other posts on “How Do You Say ‘And’ In Japanese?”
=> Summary: How Do You Say “And” In Japanese?
=> How To Say “And” After Noun 
=> How To Say “And” After Na-Adjective 
=> How To Say “And” After I-Adjective  
=> How Do You Say “And” As A Conjunction?





I got up at six. I had breakfast.という文を、日本語で言うとどうなりますか?


例1 私は6時に起きました。私はご飯を食べました。」

でも、「私は」が繰り返されているから、一文にまとめたい。英語だったら、I woke up at six and (I) had breakfast.のように最初の文の後にandと言うだけで二つの文をまとめられます。




例2 6時に起きてご飯を食べました。


例3 6時に起きて、シャワーを浴びて、散歩して、ご飯を食べました。








例4 6時に起きて、シャワーを浴びて、散歩して、ご飯を食べないといけません!





例5 6時に起きて、シャワーを浴びて、散歩しないで、ご飯を食べました。



まず、動詞の「ない形」(Plain Negative形ともいう)を作ります。例えば「します」の「ない形」は「しない」です。



An image for a practice to say "and" after verb in the negative
[Click to enlarge / 画像をクリックすると拡大します] Sometimes we walk during the day. / 時々日中に散歩します。Photo by Amity



  • 次の項目へ行く前に「て形」をたくさん使った歌を聴いて、「て形」に親しんで下さい!=> 虹の歌と「て形」

=> まとめ記事:日本語でAND…は何という?
=> 名詞の後でAND…を何という?
=> ナ形容詞の後でAND…をどう言うか 
=> イ形容詞の後でAND…をどう言うか 
=> 接続詞としてのANDは何という? 

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